600 cities will be home to 60% of the world s population by 2030. As our cities continue to grow and become denser, they are turning into a concentrate of sources of stress, pollution and nuisances that have a significant effect on the health of their inhabitants. Allergies, diabetes, obesity and depression are just some of the conditions on the rise. The cost of the impact on health of air pollution alone is estimated at about $3.5 trillion per year in the OECD countries, China and India. Every year, 3 million people worldwide die an early death due to the consequences of air pollution.

These worrying figures, which are constantly rising, must make us question how cities can guarantee the health, quality of life and fulfilment of their inhabitants, against a backdrop of demographic growth and rampant

urbanisation. We must consider territorial development policies as a key factor for the wellness of citizens, and think of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social being (WHO) and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity . Health is as much about prevention and individual fulfilment as about curing. By accepting this broad definition of health, we can address the multitude of factors that affect it, and the diversity of the solutions that protect and improve it.

A consensus exists about the fact that encouraging alternative modes of transport to the motor car helps to improve air quality, to fight climate change and, more simply, to make cities quieter and calmer places. So we must promote green mobility, and walking in our cities, because they produce positive individual and collective results.

Similarly, parks and gardens, watercourses and other recreational areas are attractive and soothing, and they offer a solution to heat islands and respiratory conditions, such as allergies. Parks and promenades are places to the encounters and exchanges that are essential to creating social bonds. Bonds that contribute to individual fulfilment and are encouraged by the expanding practice of urban agriculture, which also promotes short and local circuits. The effects of these measures are increased by other participatory trends. By playing an active role in their city, citizens also protect their own health.

l impact de la seule pollution de l air en matière de santé est estimé à environ 3 500 milliards de dollars par an pour les pays de l OCDE, la Chine et l Inde. Chaque année dans le monde, 3 millions de personnes meurent prématurément des conséquences de cette pollution.

En constante progression, ces chiffres considérables nous obligent à nous interroger sur la manière dont les villes peuvent, dans le contexte actuel de croissance démographique et d urbanisation exponentielle, garantir la santé, la qualité de vie et l épanouissement de leurs habitants. Nous devons reconsidérer les politiques d aménagement du territoire comme un facteur clé du bien-être des citadins et concevoir la santé non pas comme l absence de maladie ou d infirmité, mais comme « un état complet de bien-être physique, mental, et social » (OMS).

La santé est autant affaire de prévention et d épanouissement personnel que de guérison.

En 2030, 600 métropoles regrouperont 60 % de la population mondiale. Alors que les villes ne cessent de se développer et de se densifier, elles concentrent toujours de multiples sources de stress, de pollutions et de nuisances qui ont un impact considérable sur la santé des citadins. Allergies, diabète, obésité ou encore dépression de nombreuses pathologies se développent. Le coût de

Health is as much about prevention and individual fulfilment as about curing.

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